ENVIS Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Wednesday, August 12, 2020

Cooum estuary

 

Cooum estuary

 

Name of the River
Cooum
Place
Chennai
District
Chennai Corporation
State
Tamil Nadu
Latitude
13° 10’N
Longitude
80° 16’E
Depth
3 - 6m
Type of the Estuary
Bar-built
Industrial effluent discharges
2,52,000 liter/day
Sewage discharges
15.4 million gallons/day

Image

Map

River Basin Map

 

Physico-chemical parameters
 
Table 1. Rainfall (24 hrs. in mm. data collected from Meteorology Department)
 
Sl. No.
Month
1988
1989
1990
1
January
000.7
09.0
006.5
2
February
21.9
Nil
002.9
3
March
Nil
Nil
16.0
4
April
006.1
Nil
Nil
5
May
29.6
003.0
408.5
6
June
27.4
128.5
20;3
7
July
32.5
191.5
096.7
8
August
291.7
56.0
085.7
9
September
220.7
148.9
195.0
10
October
77.2
179.9
573.5
11
November
477.9
492.3
309.3
12
December
110.8
106.1
191.9

 

 

Table 2. Physico-chemical parameters (mg/l) in the river Cooum at polluted stations during 1988-1990 (Mean values have been shown along with range in brackets)
 

Sl.

No.

 
Cooum estuary
1988
1989
1990
Summer
Rainy
Summer
Rainy
Summer
Rainy
1
Air temp.°C
28.8
(28.4-31.0)
25.0
(23.4-28.4)
28.8
(23.8-31.6)
25.68
(23.4-28.5)
30.1
(26.8-31.1)
26.5
(23.6-28.5)
2
Water tem.°C
29.6
(28.6-31.8)
26.2
(23.6-28.4)
28.6
(24-32)
26.4
(23.6-29.0)
27.5
(25.2-31.2)
22.1
(23.8-23.6)
3
Colour
(in units)
200
(170-240)
180
(160-220)
220
(160-250)
190
(180-240)
230
(190-260)
200
(160-220)
4
pH
8.3
(7.4-9)
7
(6.6-7.5)
8.6
(8.1-9.1)
7.2
(6-7.5)
8.8
(8.4-9.2)
7.5
(6.5-7.5)
5
Salinity
33.4
(23.6-43.5)
13.4
(8.4-20.1)
25
(12.4-44.6)
13.9
(8.4-15.8)
24.9
(14.6-43.8)
11.2
(8.6-17.4)
6
Total Suspended Solid
208
(192-212)
83
(72-89)
236
(212-241)
88
(78-96)
245
(192-263)
95
(85-118)
7
Free Carbon-dioxide
84.5
(72-101)
69.4
(43-93)
93.8
(79-108)
63.4
(40-90)
94
(69-112)
66
(40-90)
8
Dissolved Oxygen
4.1
(3-7)
6.2
(5.2-7.8)
4.3
(3.1-6.8)
6.4
(4.1-8.4)
3.6
(2.5-7.6)
5.6
(2.7-9.8)
9
B.O.D.
26
(25-27)
27
(25-29)
28
(25-29)
27
(26-29)
25
(24-26)
 
20
(25-27)
10
C.O.D.
236
(232-241)
236
(230-241)
234
(230-239)
235
(228-242)
234
(229-240)
235
(230-244)
11
Acidity
227.5
(201-211)
 
62.8
(54-74)
188.8
(68-246)
61.2
(59-73)
62.6
(54-76)
178.2
(69-249)
12
Alkalinity
566
(510-612)
101.4
(94-108)
416.7
(139-631)
119.4
(107-129)
512.5
(141-624)
119.2
(112-131)
13
Nitrite
0.02
(0.01-0.03)
0.015
(0.01-0.03)
0.03
(0.01-0.04)
0.018
(0.01-0.02)
0.025
(0.01-0.02)
0.018
(0.01-0.04)
14
Nitrate
4.5
(4.3-4.9)
3.6
(2.1-3.8)
4.7
(2.7-4.9)
3.8
(2.0-4.4)
4.8
(3.9-5.9)
3.4
(2.8-3.6)
15
Ammonia
2.8
(1.4-3.9)
1.9
(1.1-2.3)
2.9
(1.7-3.8)
2.0
(1.2-2.4)
3.1
(2.5-3.8)
2.6
(1.8-3.2)
16
Phosphate
2.6
(1.4-3.2)
2.4
(1.8-2.8)
3.2
(1.8-3.3)
2.8
(1.3-2.6)
3.8
(2.0-4.6)
2.9
(2.2-3.8)
17
Sulphate
85
(76-119)
54
(42-68)
200
(106-218)
65
(52-85)
185
(92-218)
72
(65-110)
18
Chloride
1800
(1640-1920)
860
(800-980)
1920
(1760-1980)
890
(640-920)
2320
(1830-2440)
940
(826-984)
19
Silica
2.8
(1.6-3.4)
6
(4.2-6.8)
2.9
(1.8-3.1)
7.2
(6.4-7.8)
4.1
(3.0-4.4)
8.1
(6.1-8.6)

 

Table 3. A condensed grid of the leopold matrix for Cooum estuary

 
  Existing conditions of the estuarine environment  
  Physical & Chemical features Flora Fauna Cultural features Ecology  

THE LEOPOLD MATRIX

Reduced grid showing all lixely impact

Flow the surface water Water quality Water recharge Temp. Dissolved oxygen Silting Sand accretion in estuary Phyto-plankton Productivity Faecal coliform bacteria

Micro-

fauna

Fishes Piped drinking water quality Scenic views Recre- ation Food chain  

Construction of Dams

10 /10

3/8

3/8

3/1

5/1

2/2

 

2/1

2/2

 

 

5/5

 

 

5/1

5/5

45/44

Construction of harbor

10/10

10/8

 

 

8/2

10/10

 

10/10

8/1

8/8

 

8/8

10/10

 

10/1

5/5

10/10

107/83

Urbanization

5/1

10/8

5/2

2/2

 

 

 

 

 

10/10

 

5/5

8/5

10/5

10/5

 

65/43

Sewage overflow

10/5

10/2

 

3/2

10/5

5/1

 

8/2

8/8

10/10

 

10/4

 

10/4

10/4

10/4

104/51

Improper landuse

5/5

10/5

 

5/5

5/2

3/5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10/5

10/5

5/5

53/37

Cattle refuse disposal

3/3

8/3

 

 

5/2

5/1

 

3/1

5/5

 

5/5

 

5/5

 

 

 

 

39/25

Bridge construction

2/1

2/1

 

 

5/8

 

 

 

 

8/4

 

5/5

 

 

 

5/5

27/

24

Dobhi washing

(Laundry)

 

3/3

 

 

5/1

 

 

3/3

5/5

 

5/4

5/1

 

5/3

 

5/3

39/

23

Hotel industry

 

4/1

 

 

5/2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3/2

 

 

12/5

Small scale industry

 

 

 

 

5/1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3/2

 

 

8/3

Burning

 

5/1

 

1/1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5/2

 

 

11/4

 

45/35

65/40

8/10

23/12

55/32

15/9

10/10

24/8

28/28

33/29

16/12

45/35

8/5

56/24

40/20

46/27

 

 

 

PHYTOPLANKTON
 
Cyanophyceae
Anabaena circinalis
Anabaena constricta
Anthrospira sp.
Apanozomenon flosaguae
Aphanocapsa pulchra (Kutz) Raben
Coelospharium huetzingianum
Euglena acus
Euglena polymorpha
Euglena viridis Her
Gleocapsa
Merismopedia blauca
Microcystis elebans
Mougeotia indica Randhawa
Oscillatoria chalybea
Oscillatoria formosa Bory
Oscillatoria putrida
Phormidium anbigenum
Pleurocapsa sp.
Polycystis
Protococcus
Spirulina sp.
Spirulina gigantean
Spirulina jenneri (Stizb) geitler
 
 
Chlorophyceae
 
Actinastrum sp.
Ankistrodermus falcatus (corda) Ralfs.
Ankistrodesmus
Chiamydomonas sp.
Chlorella vulgaris
Chlorococcum humicola (Naeg) Raben
Closterium acerosum (Schrank) Her.
Crucigenia guadradata
Crucigenia tetrapedia
Cryptomonas ovata
Eudorina elegans Ehr
Eudorina indica Iyengar
Eudorina sp.
Hydrodictyon
Oxhstis crassa Wittrock
Oxystis ecballocystiformis Iyengar
Oxystis sp.
Pandorina morum Mull BOry
Pediastrum duplex
Scenedesmus bernardii G.M. Smith
Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turp) Kutz
Schroederic
Seenedesmus quadricauda (Turp) Brela
Spriogyra crassa Kuty
Staurastrum iotanum
Staurastrum punctulatum Brel
Stauroneis parvula green
Tetraedron tumidulum
Ulotrix zonata (Weber and Mohr) Kutz
Volvox globator
 
 
Bascillariophyceae
 
Amphora
Asterionella japonica
Bacteriastrum
Biddulphia sinensis
Cyclotella menghiniana
Fitzschia acicularis var
Fragilaria capucina Desmaz
Fragilaria halophile
Gomphonema parvulum (Kutz) green
Gomphonema sphacrophorum (Ehr). f. subscapitata
Navicula cryptocephala Kutz
Navicula laterostrata Hust.
Navicula pupala F. Capitata
Navicula pygmaca (Kutz) green
Nitzsbhia palea (Kutz) wrn. Srn
Nitzschia obtusa Wrn. Srn. Vi
Synedra acua Kutz
Synedra ulna (Nizt) Ehr
Thalassionemo
 
Diatoms
 
Amphiprora gigantean Var sulcata (O’Meara) Cleve
Amphora proteus Greg.
Amphora terroris Ehr.
Asterionella formosa Hass
Asterionella japonica Cleve
Bacteriastrum sp.
Buddulphia mobiliensis Bailey
Carcinodiscus sp.
Chaetoceros perpusilla Cleve
Chaetoceros wighami Brighwell
Coscinodiscus lineatus Ehr.
Cyclotella sp.
Diploneis weissflogii (A. S.) Cleve
Ditylum brightwellii (West) Grunow
Eucampia cornuta (Cleave) Grun.
Guinardia flaccida (Castr.) Perag.
Leptocylindrus danicus Cleve
Melosira sp.
Navicula cancellata Donkin
Navicula pupula capitata
Nitzschia closterium (Ehr.) Wm. Sm.
Nitzschia longissimi (Breb.) Ralfs
Nitzschia palea (Kutz) Wm. Sm.
Nitzschia panduriformes var. continua Grunow
Nivicula sp.
Paralia sulcata (Ehr.) Cleve
Pleurosigma aestuarii Breb.
Rhaphoneis amphiceros Ehr.
Rhizosolenia sp.
Synedra tabulate Kutz.
Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb)
Thalassionema nitzschioides Grunow
Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran.
Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii Grun.
Triceratium dubium Brightw.
Triceratium favus Ehr.
Triceratium reticulatum Ehr.
Triceratium sculptum Shadb.
 
ZOOPLANKTON
 
Acartia spinicauda
aracalanus parvus
Asplanohna sp.
Balanus sp.
Brachionus calyciflorus
Brachionus calyciflorus Pallus
Brachionus forficula
Brachionus quadridenta
Brachionus rubens Her
Calanopia aurivilli
Calanopia eliptica
Candaca bradyi
Candaciidae Candaca discaudata
Centropages furcatus
Cladocera
Copepoda
Copila vitrea
Culecine pupa
Culex fatigans
Cypris
Depetra Larva, Brachydeutera longipes Hendel
Diaptomus sp.
Dipteran pupa
Eucalanus attenuatus
Eucalanus crassus
Eucalanus elongates
Euchaeta corninna dana
Euealanus elongatus (Dana)
Filinia sp.
Filium longiseta
Isias tropica sewell
Labidocera acuta
Labidocera minuta
Labidocera pectinata
Larval forms
Lucicuta flavicornis
Lucifer sp.
Mesocyclops sp.
Moina sp.
Naupluis
Nematode worm
Ostracod
Platyhelminthes
Pontella danae
Pontellopsis scotti sewell
pseudodiaptomus serricauda
Scolecithrix danae
Temora discaudata
Temora stylifera
Temora tubinata
Undinull vulgoris Var. Sewell
 
 
 
MACROFAUNA
 
Mollusca
Anisus (Diplodiscus)
Hyptocylos (Bensen)
Pilaglobosa (Swainson)
Pilavirens (Lamark)
Planorbis exustus (Deshayes)
Vivipara sengalensis
 
CRUSTACEA
 
Macrobrachium javanicum (Heller)
Macrobrachium lamarrei (H. Milne Edwards)
Macrobrachium rosenbergi (de Man)
 
INSECTA
 
Anisops nivea Fieber
Diplonychus indicus
Gerrid sp.
Hydrometra sp.
Laccotrephes sp.
Limnogonus fossarum fossarum
Micromecta punctata (Fieb)
Nepa sp.
Ranatra sp.
Sphacrodema annulatum Fabr.
 
 
FISHES
 
Acentrogobius neilli Day
Ambassis miops Gunther
Amblypharyngodon microlepis (Blkr.)
Amblypharyngodon mola Hamilton
Anguilla bengalensis Gray
Anguilla bicolor Mc Clelland
Awaous gutum (Ham.)
Channa orientalis (Bloch & Schn.)
Channa punctatus (Bloch)
Channa striatus (Bloch)
Chela cachius (Ham.)
Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus)
Colisa fasciata (Schneider)
Eleotris fusca (Sch.)
Elops machnata (Forskal)
Engraulis purava
Esomus dandricus (Hamilton)
Etroplus maculatus (Bloch)
Etroplus suratensis (Bloch)
Glossogobius giuris (Ham.)
Labeo calbasu (Ham.)
Lates calcarifer (Bloch)
Leiognathus aculeatum (L.)
Leiognathus sp.
Lepidocephalus thermalis (Val.)
Liza macrolepis (Smith)
Macrognathus aral (Bl. & Sch.)
Macrognathus pancalus Ham.
Macrognatus aculeatum (Bloch)
Magolops cyprinoides (Broussonel)
Megalops cyprinoides 
Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker)
Microphis cuncalus (Ham.)
Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus)
Mugil microlepis (Smith)
Muraena sp.
Mystus gulio (Ham.)
Mystus vittatus (Bloch)
Mystus vittatus (Bloch)
Oligolepis acutipennis (Val.)
Oreochromis mossambica (Peters)
Oryzias melastigma (Mc Clelland)
Oxygaster bacaila Hamilton
Parluciosoma daniconius (Ham.)
Puntius amphibia (Valencienes)
Puntius amphibious (Val.)
Puntius sophor (Hamilton)
Puntius vittatus Day
Rasbora daniconius (Hamilton)
Salmostoma bacaila (Ham.)
Terapon jarbua (Forsskal)
Tilapia mossambica (Peters)
 
AMPHIBIA
Rana hexadactyla
Rana syanaphlyctis Schneider
Rana limnocharis Boie
 
REPTILES
Natrix sp.
 
 
References
 
Rao, V.N.R., 1987. Potential for commercial fisheries in the Cooum estuary. Proc. Natn. Sem. Estuarine Management, Trivandrum, 389–394.
Mary Bai, M., 1993. Ecological studies on the river Cooum with special reference to pollution. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 93(3–4): 393–416.
 
Shanthi, M. and R. Ramanibai, 2011. Studies on Copepods from Chennai Coast (Cooum and Adyar), Bay of Bengal - During the Cruise. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(1): 132–136.
Mary Bai, M., K. Rema Devi and T.J. Indra, 2007. Fish as biological indicator in Cooum river. Indian Hydrobiology, 10(2): 263–267.
Jayapaul Azariah and Hilda Azariah, 1987. Cooum estuary—A case study in environmental impact assessment. Proc. Natn. Sem. Estuarine Management, Trivandrum, 181–185.